UI Design

It is the space where interactions between humans and machines take place

It is an integral aspect of user experience (UX) that consists of two main parts. Visual design that conveys the look and feel of a product and interaction design, which is the functional and logical organization of other elements.

What is UI design?

A user interface is the point of interaction between humans and computers. User interface design is the process of designing how these interfaces will look and behave.

Imagine using an app on your smartphone to book a flight. The screens you navigate, the buttons you tap, and the forms you fill are all parts of the user interface.

A user interface consists of the following elements: 

Access controls:These are interactive elements that allow the user to enter information. It includes things like input controls, checkboxes, buttons, text fields, and drop-down lists. 

Navigation elements:These help the user navigate an interface to complete the desired task. Navigation components include things like search fields, sliders, and hamburger menus.

Information components:These convey useful information to the user, for example, via message boxes, notifications and progress bars.

Containers:Containers are used to group content into meaningful sections. A container holds various elements and keeps them at a reasonable maximum width based on the user’s screen size. An example of a container in UI design is the accordion menu, which is a vertically stacked list of titles that can be clicked to hide or show content.

UI designers are also engaged in the later stages of the product design process. Some key steps in the UI design process include:

Understanding Context

You cannot design a product’s user interface without knowing who will use it and for what. The UI designer will start by getting to know the project brief to understand the target audience they are designing and the purpose of the product.

Doing Competitor Analysis

UI designers can do competitor analysis to see what other brands operating in the same space are doing. This helps you understand what your users expect when interacting with certain products and allows you to design interfaces that are familiar and therefore easier to use.

Designing Screens and UI Elements

Of course, a significant part of the UI design process focuses on design. UI designers will design all the screens that make up the user journey and the different elements on these screens. This includes designing icons and buttons, selecting or creating images, making decisions about colors and typography, and designing any animations and interactions.

Creating Wireframes and Prototypes

Throughout the UI design process, UI designers will create wireframes and prototypes. In the early stages, poor quality wireframes can be used to map the position of different elements on the screen. High-accuracy, clickable prototypes are used to model the final look and feel of the product, while initial ideas translate into tangible design decisions. With high-quality prototypes, UI designers can communicate not only how the product UI should look, but also how it should behave when the user interacts with it.

Submission to Developers

Once the product UI is complete, it’s up to the developers to turn the UI designer’s prototypes into an actual, working product. It’s important to be aware that the transition from high-fidelity prototypes to development isn’t always easy, as developers and other stakeholders can get feedback and may require you to iterate over your designs.

6 Basic Principles of UI Design

There are certain guiding principles that inform the UI design process. These include:


The most enjoyable, user-friendly interfaces are the ones that are consistent. UI designers should strive for visual consistency by keeping fonts, colors, buttons, and icons uniform throughout the product, and functional consistency by ensuring that certain elements represent the same function or action in all contexts. The more consistent the user interface, the easier it is for the user to grasp.

Familiarity and Predictability

It has to do with how a user expects a particular interface to work. Based on our experience with similar websites and apps, we learn to associate certain user interface elements with certain actions. We also expect certain things to happen in certain places. UI designers are required to create comfortable, user-friendly interfaces.


As the user moves through an interface, it is very important to provide them with feedback. This guides them towards their goal, letting them know if they have successfully completed a certain action or notifying them if something goes wrong. It can be visually or through explicit messaging.


When designing an interface, it’s important to provide flexibility in how users can complete certain tasks. As a result, your UI should be consistent and also allow for some degree of customization depending on the user.


New users may need more guidance, while experienced users should have access to shortcuts and accelerators that allow them to speed up common actions. In this way, a common point can be determined for each persona in the experience classifications. Thanks to the Sufficiency Principle, which is an important principle in the design of user-friendly interfaces, the addition of the Consistency Principle results in optimal results.


UI designers have the responsibility to create accessible interfaces for all users. This includes providing sufficient contrast between the text and the background on which it is placed, ensuring that interactive elements such as links and buttons are easily identified, leaving enough space around buttons and touchpoints, and creating designs for viewports of different sizes.


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